Skip to main content

Wireless Network and Wireless Technology


Wireless communication is among technology’s biggest contributions to mankind. Wireless communication involves the transmission of information over a distance without help of wires, cables or any other forms of electrical conductors. The transmitted distance can be anywhere between a few meters (for example, a television’s remote control) and thousands of kilometres (for example, radio communication).

Many communication technologies are well known such as WiFi, Bluetooth, ZigBee and 2G/3G/4G cellular, but there are also several new emerging networking options such as Thread as an alternative for home automation applications, and Whitespace TV technologies being implemented in major cities for wider area IoT-based use cases. Depending on the application, factors such as range, data requirements, security and power demands and battery life will dictate the choice of one or some form of combination of technologies. These are some of the major communication technologies on offer to developers.
 

Bluetooth

An important short-range communications technology is of course Bluetooth, which has become very important in computing and many consumer product markets. It is expected to be key for wearable products in particular, again connecting to the IoT albeit probably via a smartphone in many cases. The new Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE) – or Bluetooth Smart, as it is now branded – is a significant protocol for IoT applications. Importantly, while it offers similar range to Bluetooth it has been designed to offer significantly reduced power consumption.

However, Smart/BLE is not really designed for file transfer and is more suitable for small chunks of data. It has a major advantage certainly in a more personal device context over many competing technologies given its widespread integration in smartphones and many other mobile devices. According to the Bluetooth SIG, more than 90 percent of Bluetooth-enabled smartphones, including iOS, Android and Windows based models, are expected to be ‘Smart Ready’ by 2018.

Devices that employ Bluetooth Smart features incorporate the Bluetooth Core Specification Version 4.0 (or higher – the latest is version 4.2 announced in late 2014) with a combined basic-data-rate and low-energy core configuration for a RF transceiver, baseband and protocol stack. Importantly, version 4.2 via its Internet Protocol Support Profile will allow Bluetooth Smart sensors to access the Internet directly via 6LoWPAN connectivity (more on this below). This IP connectivity makes it possible to use existing IP infrastructure to manage Bluetooth Smart ‘edge’ devices. More information on Bluetooth 4.2 is available 
here .
  • Standard: Bluetooth 4.2 core specification
  • Frequency: 2.4GHz (ISM)
  • Range: 50-150m (Smart/BLE)
  • Data Rates: 1Mbps (Smart/BLE)
Zigbee

ZigBee, like Bluetooth, has a large installed base of operation, although perhaps traditionally more in industrial settings. ZigBee PRO and ZigBee Remote Control (RF4CE), among other available ZigBee profiles, are based on the IEEE802.15.4 protocol, which is an industry-standard wireless networking technology operating at 2.4GHz targeting applications that require relatively infrequent data exchanges at low data-rates over a restricted area and within a 100m range such as in a home or building.

ZigBee/RF4CE has some significant advantages in complex systems offering low-power operation, high security, robustness and high scalability with high node counts and is well positioned to take advantage of wireless control and sensor networks in M2M and IoT applications. The
latest version of ZigBee is the recently launched 3.0, which is essentially the unification of the various ZigBee wireless standards into a single standard.
  • Standard: ZigBee 3.0 based on IEEE802.15.4
  • Frequency: 2.4GHz
  • Range: 10-100m
  • Data Rates: 250kbps

Z-Wave

Z-Wave is a low-power RF communications technology that is primarily designed for home automation for products such as lamp controllers and sensors among many others. Optimized for reliable and low-latency communication of small data packets with data rates up to 100kbit/s, it operates in the sub-1GHz band and is impervious to interference from WiFi and other wireless technologies in the 2.4-GHz range such as Bluetooth or ZigBee. It supports full mesh networks without the need for a coordinator node and is very scalable, enabling control of up to 232 devices. Z-Wave uses a simpler protocol than some others, which can enable faster and simpler development, but the only maker of chips is Sigma Designs compared to multiple sources for other wireless technologies such as ZigBee and others. 
  • Standard: Z-Wave Alliance ZAD12837 / ITU-T G.9959
  • Frequency: 900MHz (ISM)
  • Range: 30m
  • Data Rates: 9.6/40/100kbit/s 
6LowPAN

A key IP (Internet Protocol)-based technology is 6LowPAN (IPv6 Low-power wireless Personal Area Network). Rather than being an IoT application protocols technology like Bluetooth or ZigBee, 6LowPAN is a network protocol that defines encapsulation and header compression mechanisms. The standard has the freedom of frequency band and physical layer and can also be used across multiple communications platforms, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, 802.15.4 and sub-1GHz ISM. A key attribute is the IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) stack, which has been a very important introduction in recent years to enable the IoT. IPv6 is the successor to IPv4 and offers approximately 5 x 1028 addresses for every person in the world, enabling any embedded object or device in the world to have its own unique IP address and connect to the Internet. Especially designed for home or building automation, for example, IPv6 provides a basic transport mechanism to produce complex control systems and to communicate with devices in a cost-effective manner via a low-power wireless network.

Designed to send IPv6 packets over IEEE802.15.4-based networks and implementing open IP standards including TCP, UDP, HTTP, COAP, MQTT, and websockets, the standard offers end-to-end addressable nodes, allowing a router to connect the network to IP. 6LowPAN is a mesh network that is robust, scalable and self-healing. Mesh router devices can route data destined for other devices, while hosts are able to sleep for long periods of time. An explanation of 6LowPAN is available here, courtesy of TI. 
  • Standard: RFC6282
  • Frequency: (adapted and used over a variety of other networking media including Bluetooth Smart (2.4GHz) or ZigBee or low-power RF (sub-1GHz)
  • Range: N/A
  • Data Rates: N/A
Thread

A very new IP-based IPv6 networking protocol aimed at the home automation environment is Thread. Based on 6LowPAN, and also like it, it is not an IoT applications protocol like Bluetooth or ZigBee. However, from an application point of view, it is primarily designed as a complement to WiFi as it recognises that while WiFi is good for many consumer devices that it has limitations for use in a home automation setup. 

Launched in mid-2014 by the Thread Group, the royalty-free protocol is based on various standards including IEEE802.15.4 (as the wireless air-interface protocol), IPv6 and 6LoWPAN, and offers a resilient IP-based solution for the IoT. Designed to work on existing IEEE802.15.4 wireless silicon from chip vendors such as Freescale and Silicon Labs, Thread supports a mesh network using IEEE802.15.4 radio transceivers and is capable of handling up to 250 nodes with high levels of authentication and encryption. A relatively simple software upgrade should allow users to run thread on existing IEEE802.15.4-enabled devices. 
  • Standard: Thread, based on IEEE802.15.4 and 6LowPAN
  • Frequency: 2.4GHz (ISM)
  • Range: N/A
  • Data Rates: N/A
WiFi

WiFi connectivity is often an obvious choice for many developers, especially given the pervasiveness of WiFi within the home environment within LANs. It requires little further explanation except to state the obvious that clearly there is a wide existing infrastructure as well as offering fast data transfer and the ability to handle high quantities of data. 

Currently, the most common WiFi standard used in homes and many businesses is 802.11n, which offers serious throughput in the range of hundreds of megabit per second, which is fine for file transfers, but may be too power-consuming for many IoT applications. A series of RF development kits designed for building WiFi-based applications are available from RS. 
  • Standard: Based on 802.11n (most common usage in homes today)
  • Frequencies: 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands
  • Range: Approximately 50m
  • Data Rates: 600 Mbps maximum, but 150-200Mbps is more typical, depending on channel frequency used and number of antennas (latest 802.11-ac standard should offer 500Mbps to 1Gbps) 
Cellular

Any IoT application that requires operation over longer distances can take advantage of GSM/3G/4G cellular communication capabilities. While cellular is clearly capable of sending high quantities of data, especially for 4G, the expense and also power consumption will be too high for many applications, but it can be ideal for sensor-based low-bandwidth-data projects that will send very low amounts of data over the Internet. A key product in this area is the SparqEE range of products, including the original tiny CELLv1.0 low-cost development board and a series of shield connecting boards for use with the Raspberry Pi and Arduino platforms. 
  • Standard: GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G), UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G)
  • Frequencies: 900/1800/1900/2100MHz
  • Range: 35km max for GSM; 200km max for HSPA
  • Data Rates (typical download): 35-170kps (GPRS), 120-384kbps (EDGE), 384Kbps-2Mbps (UMTS), 600kbps-10Mbps (HSPA), 3-10Mbps (LTE) 
NFC

NFC (Near Field Communication) is a technology that enables simple and safe two-way interactions between electronic devices, and especially applicable for smartphones, allowing consumers to perform contactless payment transactions, access digital content and connect electronic devices. Essentially it extends the capability of contactless card technology and enables devices to share information at a distance that is less than 4cm. Further information is available here
  • Standard: ISO/IEC 18000-3
  • Frequency: 13.56MHz (ISM)
  • Range: 10cm
  • Data Rates: 100–420kbps
Sigfox

An alternative wide-range technology is Sigfox, which in terms of range comes between WiFi and cellular. It uses the ISM bands, which are free to use without the need to acquire licenses, to transmit data over a very narrow spectrum to and from connected objects. The idea for Sigfox is that for many M2M applications that run on a small battery and only require low levels of data transfer, then WiFi’s range is too short while cellular is too expensive and also consumes too much power. Sigfox uses a technology called Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) and is only designed to handle low data-transfer speeds of 10 to 1,000 bits per second. It consumes only 50 microwatts compared to 5000 microwatts for cellular communication, or can deliver a typical stand-by time 20 years with a 2.5Ah battery while it is only 0.2 years for cellular. 

Already deployed in tens of thousands of connected objects, the network is currently being rolled out in major cities across Europe, including ten cities in the UK for example. The network offers a robust, power-efficient and scalable network that can communicate with millions of battery-operated devices across areas of several square kilometres, making it suitable for various M2M applications that are expected to include smart meters, patient monitors, security devices, street lighting and environmental sensors. The Sigfox system uses silicon such as the EZRadioPro wireless transceivers from Silicon Labs, which deliver industry-leading wireless performance, extended range and ultra-low power consumption for wireless networking applications operating in the sub-1GHz band. 
  • Standard: Sigfox
  • Frequency: 900MHz
  • Range: 30-50km (rural environments), 3-10km (urban environments)
  • Data Rates: 10-1000bps 
Neul 

Similar in concept to Sigfox and operating in the sub-1GHz band, Neul leverages very small slices of the TV White Space spectrum to deliver high scalability, high coverage, low power and low-cost wireless networks. Systems are based on the Iceni chip, which communicates using the white space radio to access the high-quality UHF spectrum, now available due to the analogue to digital TV transition. The communications technology is called Weightless, which is a new wide-area wireless networking technology designed for the IoT that largely competes against existing GPRS, 3G, CDMA and LTE WAN solutions. Data rates can be anything from a few bits per second up to 100kbps over the same single link; and devices can consume as little as 20 to 30mA from 2xAA batteries, meaning 10 to 15 years in the field. 
  • Standard: Neul
  • Frequency: 900MHz (ISM), 458MHz (UK), 470-790MHz (White Space)
  • Range: 10km
  • Data Rates: Few bps up to 100kbps
LoRaWAN

Again, similar in some respects to Sigfox and Neul, LoRaWAN targets wide-area network (WAN) applications and is designed to provide low-power WANs with features specifically needed to support low-cost mobile secure bi-directional communication in IoT, M2M and smart city and industrial applications. Optimized for low-power consumption and supporting large networks with millions and millions of devices, data rates range from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps. 
  • Standard: LoRaWAN
  • Frequency: Various
  • Range: 2-5km (urban environment), 15km (suburban environment)
  • Data Rates: 0.3-50 kbps
 Summary of Wireless Technology's

Wireless
Standard
N/W
type
USA
Frequency
Max.
range
Max.
data
rate
and power
Security
WiFi
IEEE
802.11a,
11b,
11g,
11n,
11ac, 11ad
WLAN
2.4 ,
3.6,
5,
60 GHz
100m,
6-780 Mbps 6.75 Gbps at 60 GHz
1 Watt
WEP,
WPA,
WPA2
Z-wave
Z-wave
Mesh
908.42
MHz
30m
100Kbps, 1 mW
Triple DES
Bluetooth
Bluetooth,
Formerly
IEEE
802.15.1
WPAN
2400 to
2483.5
MHz
100m
1 to 3 Mbps, 1 Watt
56/
128 bit
Bluetooth
Smart(BLE)
IoT
Inter-
connect
WPAN
2400 to
2483.5
MHz
100m
1Mbps, 10-500 mW
128 bit AES
Zigbee
IEEE 802.15.4
Mesh
2400-
2483.5
MHz
10m
250 Kbps, 1mW
128 bit
THREAD
IEEE 802.15.4, 6LoWPAN
Mesh
2400 to
2483.5
MHz
11m
251 Kbps , 2 mWatt
128 bit AES
RFID
Many standards
Point to
Point
13.56
MHz
1 m
423 Kbps, about 1mW
Possible
NFC
ISO/IEC 13157
Point to
Point
13.56
MHz
0.1m
424 Kbps,1 to 2 mW
Possible
GPRS
3GPP
GERAN
GSM
850 ,
1900
MHz
25 Km/
10 Km
171 Kbps
2W/1W
GEA2/
GEA3
/GEA4
EDGE
3GPP
GERAN
GSM 850/
1900
26 Km/
10 Km
384 Kbps,
3W/1W
A5/4, A5/3
HSDPA/
HSUPA
3GPP
UTRAN
850/
1700/
1900
MHz
27 Km/
10 Km
0.73-56 Mbps,
4W/1W
USIM
LTE
3GPP
GERAN/
UTRAN
700-2600 MHz
28 Km/
10Km
0.1-1Gbps ,
5W/1W
SNOW 3G
Stream Cipher
ANT+
ANT+
Alliance
WSN
2.4
GHz
100 m
1Mbps,
1mW
AES-128
Cognitive Radio
IEEE 802.22 WG
WRAN
54-862
MHz
100 Km
24 Mbps,
1 W
AES-
GCM
Weightless
-N/W
Weightless SIG
LPWAN
700/
900
MHz
5 Km
0.001-10 Mbps,
40mW/4W
128bit
 

Thanks for reading ...

Please share your comments also. 

Comments

  1. It is brief but comprehensive detail about the new wireless emerging technologies. Pls share light on Iot also

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for you comments. Please go through this url - https://polarizeindia.blogspot.in/2016/07/why-we-need-iot-internet-of-things.html

      Thanks.

      Delete
  2. Provide more insight over above technology specially on nfc , lorawifi

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for your comment. Sure i will do.

      Delete
  3. i have learn to Many-many technologies about World wide

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks.. If you need any specific topic. Please share with me i will try to public the blog on that topic.

      Delete
  4. Your efforts are really appreciated...👍👍👍

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

OCPP - An EV Charging Protocol

Nowadays, the growing CO2 emissions are one of the main international issues. The world is becoming aware that the current climate issues start being critic and that something has to be done. In parallel, Earth starts running out of fossil fuels so alternative energies and alternative ways of producing energy have to be found. Driving electric vehicles would reduce the CO2 emissions and the use of fossil fuels.
Types of EV Charging Protocols
·         Open Smart Charging Protocol (OSCP) ·         OpenADR 2.0 ·         Open Charge Point Interface protocol (OCPI v0.4) ·         IEEE 2030.5 (IEEE Adoption of Smart Energy Profile 2.0 / SEP2) ·         Smart charging protocols overlap ·         Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) ·         IEC 61850-90-8 ·         Open Clearing House Protocol (OCHP) ·         Open Charge Point Interface protocol (OCPI 2.1) ·         Open InterCharge Protocol (OICP) ·         eMobility Inter-Operation Protocol(eMIP)
What is OCPP?
The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is a …

Wireless Charging - The Future of Electric Vehicle

Wirelesses charging of electric vehicles continue to be one of the most researched areas of wireless power transfer.  By reducing the reliance on fossil fuels, electric vehicles provide a sustainable and environmentally safe means for fuelling our vehicles well into the future.
What is Wireless EV Charging?
The growing EV market stimulates the demand for more convenient and reliable means to recharge the battery. WPT (Wireless Power Transfer) technique requires no physical contact between vehicle and charging device, therefore overcomes the inconvenience and hazards caused by traditional conductive method.
The initial objective is replacing conductive charging method by the novel WPT technology, while maintaining a comparable power level and efficiency. The long-term goal is to dynamically power the moving vehicles on road. This will lead to a much reduced battery pack but extended driving range. Then, the main concerns of EV, namely the high battery price and the range anxiety, will be …

CHAdeMO – EV Super-Fast Charging

About CHAdeMo Protocols…..
CHAdeMO is a DC charging (6kW to 50kW with 150kW) standard for electric vehicles. It enables seamless communication between the car and the charger. It is developed by CHAdeMO Association, which is also tasked with certification, ensuring compatibility between the car and the charger.
First introduced in 2009 with the Japanese-market Mitsubishi i-Miev, the CHAdeMO standard is capable of recharging the battery packs of cars like the Nissan LEAF and Kia Soul EV from empty to 80 percent full in as little as 30 minutes.  Used on everything from electric motorcycles to full-size electric busses, CHAdeMO is also the world’s most commonly used DC quick charge standard, with what we’d estimate to be more than 100,000 CHAdeMO-equipped vehicles on the road.

It was defined by the CHAdeMO Association – Purpose/focus CHAdeMO Association aims to increase quick-charger installations worldwide and to standardize how to charge the vehicles. – http://chademo.com. CHAdeMO was fo…

Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS)

What is WIPS? - Awireless intrusion prevention system (WIPS)operates at the Layer 2 (data link layer) level of the Open Systems Interconnection model. A WIPS compares the MAC addresses of all wireless access points on a network against the known signatures of pre-authorized, known wireless access points and alerts an administrator when a discrepancy is found. To circumvent MAC address spoofing, some higher-end WIPS are able to analyze the unique radio frequency signatures that wireless devices generate and block unknown radio fingerprints. The primary purpose of a WIPS is to prevent unauthorized network access to local area networks and other information assets by wireless devices. These systems are typically implemented as an overlay to an existing Wireless LAN infrastructure, although they may be deployed standalone to enforce no-wireless policies within an organization. Some advanced wireless infrastructure has integrated WIPS capabilities.
Large organizations with many employees are…

ITS - Intelligent Transport Systems

Intelligent Transport Systems
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) describe technology applied to transport and infrastructure to transfer information between systems for improved safety, productivity and environmental performance. This includes stand-alone applications such as traffic management systems, information and warning systems installed in individual vehicles, as well as cooperative ITS (C-ITS) applications involving vehicle to infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle communications.
Intelligent transport systems apply information, data processing, communication, and sensor technologies to vehicles (including cars, trucks, trains, aircraft and ships), transport infrastructure and transport users to increase the effectiveness, environmental performance, safety, resilience and efficiency of the transport system. Traffic Management, and Traffic Transactions enable efficient real-time management, and smart fees and payments for multi modal transport.
The following important technology …

White-Fi Technology

Microsoft is looking at starting a pilot project of its ‘White-Fi’ technology that uses the unused spectrum in frequencies used for broadcasting of television signals, and is likely to offer solution to tackle the problem of last mile broadband connectivity in the country.
“In a country of massive change, digital divide can pose serious challenge. In all the initiatives by the government — Digital India, Swachh Bharat or Jan-Dhan Yojna — technology has a role to play, and we want to be part of it,” Microsoft India Chairman Bhaskar Pramanik said, adding that at present, the company was talking to all stakeholders, including the government, for its ‘White-Fi’ technology to provide last mile connectivity. What is White Fi/Space? White Space refers to the unused broadcasting frequencies in the wireless spectrum. Television networks leave gaps between channels for buffering purposes, and this space in the wireless spectrum is similar to what is used for 4G and so it can be used to deliver …

Home Automation Why? And How ?

DSRC - Technology for Safer Driving !

What is DSRC?
DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) is a two-way short- to- medium-range wireless communications capability that permits very high data transmission critical in communications-based active safety applications. In Report and Order FCC-03-324, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated 75 MHz of spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band for use by Intelligent Transportations Systems (ITS) vehicle safety and mobility applications.
Range – Up to 1000 m Data Rate – 6 to 27 Mbps Channels – 7 Licensed Channels 802.11p – aka Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment (WAVE)
The U.S. DOT’s commitment to DSRC for active safety communications contributes to safer driving. Vehicle safety applications that use vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications need secure, wireless interface dependability in extreme weather conditions, and short time delays; all of which are facilitated by DSRC. Who Can Use DSRC Manufacturer Technologies? DSRC manufacturer t…

An Electric Vehicle - Future Drive

What is an Electric Vehicle?
An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using electrical energy stored in rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device. Electric motors give electric cars instant torque, creating strong and smooth acceleration.
How does An Electric Vehicle works? The electric vehicle power source is the battery which acts as a "gas tank" and supplies the electric motor with the energy necessary to move the vehicle.  This gives the car acceleration.  When the vehicle is idle there is no electrical current being processed, so energy is not being used up. The controller acts as a regulator, and controls the amount of power received from the batteries so the motor does not burn out. This battery powers all of the electronic devices in the car, just like the battery in a gas-powered car. Everything else in the electric car is basically the same as its gas-powered equivalent: transmission, brakes, air conditioning, an…

HaLow - Future Of WiFi....

What is HaLow?

There's a new wireless networking protocol in town and it comes to bring connectivity to the Internet of Things. Wi-Fi HaLow (pronounced "HAY-low") is a marketing name used for products that utilize the IEEE802.11ahwireless technology, which offers longer range and lower power connectivity than traditional WiFi-certified products.

Wi-Fi HaLow is the latest specification from the Wi-Fi Alliance looking to expand the range of Wi-Fi's connectivity options. Wi-Fi HaLow will be able to easily work through walls and large barriers because of the propagation capabilities of low-frequency radio waves, as it will operate in the unlicensed wireless spectrum below 1GHz. HaLow’s range will be nearly double the range of today's Wi-Fi, with estimates extending as high as a whopping 3,280 feet.
HaLow is designed for the Internet of Things, designed to connect multiple devices wirelessly, over extended distances and using lower power.  802.11ah HaLow: for low dat…